In lignified plants, broken, dented, diseased, dense and crooked growing branches are pruned and trees are given proper shapes. It affects the quality of flowering and fruiting in fruit trees. The shape and beauty of the ornamental trees and shrubs in the gardens are preserved with Pruners.
Young fruit trees are planted as a flat sapling without a crown. In the first years, the side branches coming out of the trunk are not touched. Only the shoots emerging from the root collar are cleaned. According to the tree type; Shape pruning is done in the second year in peaches and apricots, and in the third year in apples and pears. Low height and short branches of fruit trees affect early and abundant fruit yield. The branches should grow in breadth (not extend). Maintenance and fruit picking are easy in low fruit trees. Fruit trees seasoned with pruning; low structure, 3-5 main branches, the lower part of the crown has abundant leaves and fruit branches. Rejuvenation pruning is done to form a new crown by creating strong shoots on the trees. Thus, the yield of the tree will be increased again and the quality of the fruits will be increased. Rejuvenation pruning is not done on old and dying trees. In rejuvenation, the degree of resistance of fruit species to pruning is also taken into account. The olive tree is the most resistant to pruning. According to their endurance levels; pear, plum, apple, peach, apricot, mulberry and cherry trees follow in order.
After a proper crown pruning, good soil cultivation, irrigation and fertilization should help to form sufficient fruit branches and twigs.
Summer pruning: After winter pruning, unnecessary shoots may appear from the edges of the pruned places in the old parts of the trees. It is necessary to cut or shorten these unnecessary shoots at the beginning of summer. In this way, power wastage in trees is prevented.
What are the Pruning Styles?
In order to get the highest yield from a fruit tree, besides the main branches should be formed well, the auxiliary branches should also be chosen regularly. Generally, young trees produce strong and long shoots. The ends of the branches should be cut so that auxiliary (secondary) branches are formed on these shoots that will form the main branch. This is very important especially in fruit species and varieties that do not give side branches. When the ends of the branches are not removed in young trees that give shoots of 80-100 cm and longer, there will be gaps on the main branches in the future, since secondary branches will not form in the desired direction and number. This causes less fruit to be taken from the tree in general.
The most extreme branches or eyes to be left on the tree as a result of pruning should look outward from the crown as stated before, while other branches should fill the gaps of the tree and see the sun. Small fruit branches on thick branches should not be cut unless they are very frequent. Thus, the yield can be increased by utilizing the maximum volume of the tree crown.
In crop pruning, the length of the fruit branches should be up to 40 cm in fruit species such as peach, apple and pear with large fruits. Weak branches should be left shorter, strong branches should be left longer. If the tip of a long one-year-old branch is left uncut, the excess fruit on it may cause the branch to break. In addition, such branches cannot give new shoots of sufficient length. Especially in peach trees, there is a decrease in yield and weakening in the development of the tree in the following years. As a result of crop pruning, the tree should both give sufficient product that year and create new shoots that will yield yield in the following years. The fruiting of a branch and the formation of new shoots can be achieved by cutting an average of one third (1/3) of that branch. More cutting causes less fruit, but strong development of shoots, less cutting causes more fruit and weak development of shoots. In fruit branches shorter than 30 cm on average, tip removal should not be done.